Estrogen, a hormone that belongs to the sex hormone group, plays a vital role in regulating the menstrual cycle and is essential for women’s reproductive health. In addition to influencing gender characteristics and sexual behavior, estrogen has broader effects on the body, including protecting against cardiovascular diseases, bone fragility, and contributing to brain temperature regulation.
As women enter menopause and estrogen production decreases, various changes occur in the body. The risk of cardiovascular diseases and bone fractures increases, temperature regulation fluctuates, sleep deteriorates, and mood swings and memory falter. Recent research from University College London suggests that estrogen may have a protective role in the development of memory disorders, potentially reducing the risk of dementia. These findings are based on data obtained from the British Biobank, including information on fertile years, hormone replacement therapy, and surgeries related to the reproductive system.
While there is evidence suggesting a protective role of estrogen in brain health, there is no consensus on the association between hormone replacement therapy and dementia. The conflicting findings can be attributed to various factors that can complicate large-scale studies, such as confounding variables and unreliable self-reported information. Furthermore, the protective effects of estrogen may vary across different types of dementia. While estrogen has shown to be protective against vascular dementia, its impact on Alzheimer’s disease remains inconclusive. This highlights the complexity of estrogen’s role in brain health and the need for individualized risk assessments for hormone therapy.
Despite these potential benefits of estrogen in brain health, there are also risks associated with hormone therapy that must be carefully considered before initiating treatment. These risks include an increased risk of breast cancer